Turkey is one of the countries in the world that has a rich history. The history of the country covers a time frame of more than four thousand years. It is believed that the Turks lived in central part of Asia around 2000 B.C. Later on, some of them moved from this area and spread around. They established many empires and states that were independent from each other within a large area of Europe and Asia. Some of these empires included the Uygur Empire, Avar Empire, Hazar Empire and others.
The Turks began to settle in the early eleventh century by the way of incursions and continual migrations. The malazgirt victory that occurred in 1071 against Byzantines opened the gates of Anatolia to the Turks. From then the Turks conquered the entire Anatolia and created the Anatolian Seljuk state and was the first state in Turkey. The state declined after invasion by Mongol that began in 1243. The Ottoman ruled what is now Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, all islands in the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East region.
Beginning in the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire lost its military and economic power compared to Europe which experienced great development with the renaissance. Europe developed as a result of conquering new territories, access to raw materials and the industrial revolution. The Ottoman Empire could not adapt to the new developments.
This led to shift of power in favour of states in Europe. There arise nationalist movements that began in the 19th century and the rebellions by the Balkan countries with support from Russia and European powers made the empire to decline to a great extent.
First World War
The decline of the empire continued until the end of the First World War. The empire was defeated in the war making all its territories to be occupied by Russia, Britain, Greece and this was the end of this empire.
A national liberation and resistance movement arose leading to quest for Turkish self-determination and national independence. The united sporadic army in Anatolia organized themselves into a strong army to fight for creation of Turkish state. This was under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal was later on named as the father of the Turks. This resistance became strong and the Turks gained the ability to fight a serious for liberation. The Turkish National Liberation was dedicated to create a new nation from the ruins of the empire which life had come to an end. This lasted for four years as from 1919 to 1922 leading to great victory that led to the development of the modern days Turkey. On July 24 1923 Greece, Great Britain, Italy, France and other states signed a treaty that recognized the creation of borders or Turkey and assured its fill independence.
Republic of Turkey
The country claimed it full independence on October 29 1923. From this time the Turkish people enjoyed self-rule and Mustafa Kemal was elected as the first president of the country. He was able to introduce reforms in all sectors that have acted as the foundation of the country up to today.